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Material taken directly from Australian Curriculum: English (v4.1) developed by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), is highlighted in blue.

The Australian Curriculum sets out what all young people should be taught through the specification of curriculum content and achievement standards.

The Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards are the mandatory aspects of the Australian Curriculum.

2.1 Australian Curriculum content

The Australian Curriculum content has three components: content descriptions (section 2.1.1), general capabilities (section 2.1.2) and cross-curriculum priorities (section 2.1.3).

Schools design their programs to give children opportunities to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills in each of the three components.

Figure 2: Three components of the Australian Curriculum: English

Content descriptions: Disciplinary learning (section 2.1.1)

The Australian Curriculum: English content descriptions describe the knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and children are expected to learn.

The content in English is organised as:

  • strands: Language, Literature and Literacy focus on developing children’s knowledge, understanding and skills in the language modes of listening, reading, viewing, speaking/signing, writing and creating.
  • sub-strands: a sequence of development for knowledge, understanding and skills within the strand.

Content elaborations illustrate and exemplify content. These elaborations are not a requirement for the teaching of the Australian Curriculum.

 

Cross-curriculum priorities: Contemporary issues (section 2.1.3)

The three cross-curriculum priorities provide contexts for learning:

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures — to gain a deeper understanding of, and appreciation for, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures and the impact they have had, and continue to have, on our world
  • Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia — to develop a better understanding and appreciation of Australia’s economic, political and cultural interconnections to Asia
  • Sustainability — to develop an appreciation for more sustainable patterns of living, and to build capacities for thinking, valuing and acting that are necessary to create a more sustainable future.

General capabilities: Essential 21st-century skills (section 2.1.2)

These seven capabilities can be divided into two groups:

  • capabilities that support children to be successful learners — Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, and Critical and creative thinking
  • capabilities that develop ways of being, behaving and learning to live with others — Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding and Intercultural understanding.

 

2.1.1 Australian Curriculum: English Year 2 content descriptions

The content descriptions at each year level set out the knowledge, understanding and skills that teachers are expected to teach and children are expected to learn. They do not prescribe approaches to teaching.

In English, the content descriptions are organised using three interrelated strands: Language, Literature and Literacy. The strands present a sequence of development of knowledge, understanding and skills in the language modes: listening, reading, viewing, speaking/signing, writing and creating across the year levels.

Each strand is organised by sub-strands that provide more detail about the content.

Table 1: Strands and sub-strands

Language
Knowing about the English language

Literature
Understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literature

Literacy
Expanding the repertoire of English usage

Language variation and change

Literature and context

Texts in context

Language for interaction

Responding to literature

Interacting with others

Text structure and organisation

Examining literature

Interpreting, analysing and evaluating

Expressing and developing ideas

Creating literature

Creating texts

Sound and letter knowledge

 

 

Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Integration is supported by the clear relationships across the sub-strands. (See section 2.3 Planning in the English learning area)

For specific advice and guidelines for P–2 in planning, teaching, learning and reporting see:

Australian Curriculum: English Year 2 strands, sub-strands and content descriptions

View as list   View as columns

Language

Students bring with them to school a wide range of experiences with language and texts. Students develop skills and dispositions to expand their knowledge of language as well as strategies to assist that growth

  1. Language variation and change
    1. Understand that spoken, visual and written forms of language are different modes of communication with different features and their use varies according to the audience, purpose, context and cultural background (ACELA1460)
  2. Language for interaction
    1. Understand that language varies when people take on different roles in social and classroom interactions and how the use of key interpersonal language resources varies depending on context (ACELA1461)
    2. Identify language that can be used for appreciating texts and the qualities of people and things (ACELA1462)
  3. Text structure and organisation
    1. Understand that different types of texts have identifiable text structures and language features that help the text serve its purpose (ACELA1463)
    2. Understand how texts are made cohesive through resources, for example word associations, synonyms, and antonyms (ACELA1464)
    3. Recognise that capital letters signal proper nouns and commas are used to separate items in lists (ACELA1465)
    4. Know some features of text organisation including page and screen layouts, alphabetical order, and different types of diagrams, for example timelines (ACELA1466)
  4. Expressing and developing ideas
    1. Understand that simple connections can be made between ideas by using a compound sentence with two or more clauses usually linked by a coordinating conjunction (ACELA1467)
    2. Understand that nouns represent people, places, things and ideas and can be, for example, common, proper, concrete or abstract, and that noun groups/phrases can be expanded using articles and adjectives (ACELA1468)
    3. Identify visual representations of characters’ actions, reactions, speech and thought processes in narratives, and consider how these images add to or contradict or multiply the meaning of accompanying words (ACELA1469)
    4. Understand the use of vocabulary about familiar and new topics and experiment with and begin to make conscious choices of vocabulary to suit audience and purpose (ACELA1470)
    5. Understand how to use digraphs, long vowels, blends and silent letters to spell words, and use morphemes and syllabification to break up simple words and use visual memory to write irregular words (ACELA1471)
    6. Recognise common prefixes and suffixes and how they change a word’s meaning (ACELA1472)
  5. Sound and letter knowledge
    1. Recognise most sound–letter matches including silent letters, vowel/consonant digraphs and many less common sound–letter combinations (ACELA1474)1
Literature

Students develop their growth and use of language through pleasurable and varied experiences of literature

  1. Literature and context
    1. Discuss how depictions of characters in print, sound and images reflect the contexts in which they were created (ACELT1587)
  2. Responding to literature
    1. Compare opinions about characters, events and settings in and between texts (ACELT1589)
    2. Identify aspects of different types of literary texts that entertain, and give reasons for personal preferences (ACELT1590)
  3. Examining literature
    1. Discuss the characters and settings of different texts and explore how language is used to present these features in different ways (ACELT1591)
    2. Identify, reproduce and experiment with rhythmic, sound and word patterns in poems, chants, rhymes and songs (ACELT1592)
  4. Creating literature
    1. Create events and characters using different media that develop key events and characters from literary texts (ACELT1593)
Literacy

Students develop their growth and use of language through the beginnings of a repertoire of activities involving listening, viewing, reading, speaking and writing using texts.

  1. Texts in context
    1. Discuss different texts on a similar topic, identifying similarities and differences between the texts (ACELY1665)
  2. Interacting with others
    1. Listen for specific purposes and information, including instructions, and extend students’ own and others' ideas in discussions (ACELY1666)
    2. Use interaction skills including initiating topics, making positive statements and voicing disagreement in an appropriate manner, speaking clearly and varying tone, volume and pace appropriately (ACELY1789)
    3. Rehearse and deliver short presentations on familiar and new topics (ACELY1667)
  3. Interpreting,
    analysing and evaluating
    1. Identify the audience of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts (ACELY1668)
    2. Read less predictable texts with phrasing and fluency by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge using text processing strategies, for example monitoring meaning, predicting, rereading and self-correcting (ACELY1669)
    3. Use comprehension strategies to build literal and inferred meaning and begin to analyse texts by drawing on growing knowledge of context, language and visual features and print and multimodal text structures (ACELY1670)
  4. Creating texts
    1. Create short imaginative, informative and persuasive texts using growing knowledge of text structures and language features for familiar and some less familiar audiences, selecting print and multimodal elements appropriate to the audience and purpose (ACELY1671)
    2. Reread and edit text for spelling, sentence-boundary punctuation and text structure (ACELY1672)
    3. Write legibly and with growing fluency using unjoined upper case and lower case letters (ACELY1673)
    4. Construct texts featuring print, visual and audio elements using software, including word processing programs (ACELY1674)

1Codes included with the Australian Curriculum content descriptions relate to hyperlinks into the Australian Curriculum website. Each unique identifier provides the user with the content description, content elaboration, and links to general capabilities, cross-curriculum priorities and modes.

Content elaborations

Content elaborations illustrate and exemplify content and assist teachers in developing a common understanding of the content descriptions. The elaborations are not a requirement for the teaching of the Australian Curriculum. They are not individualised teaching points intended to be taught to all children.

2.1.2 General capabilities

The general capabilities are embedded in the content descriptions. The seven capabilities can be divided into two broad groups. These broad groups include capabilities that:

  • support children to be successful learners: Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, and Critical and creative thinking
  • develop ways of being, behaving and learning to live with others: Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding and Intercultural understanding.

Each of the general capabilities can be relevant to teaching and learning in English and explicit teaching of the capabilities should be incorporated in teaching and learning activities where appropriate.

See also General capabilities in the Australian Curriculum on the ACARA website.

Literacy capability and Literacy strand

The teaching of literacy skills is essential for children in all learning areas and this is recognised in the Australian Curriculum through the Literacy capability.

Literacy has a central place in English programs. The development of literacy is explicitly described in the Literacy strand. Teachers of English have a particular responsibility for the explicit teaching of literacy skills.

In both the Literacy strand and the Literacy capability, literacy refers to reading, writing, creating, speaking/signing, listening and viewing for a range of purposes and in a range of contexts. In the 21st century, literacy also includes skills in the use and creation of texts using new technologies, multimedia, and visual and digital texts.

In English programs, literacy is developed through the specific study of the English language in all its forms, enabling students to understand how the English language works. Students learn literacy knowledge and skills as they critically assess writers’ opinions, biases and intents; they apply their literacy capability when they interpret and make increasingly sophisticated language choices in their own texts.

Australian Curriculum literacy continuum

The Australian Curriculum literacy continuum is a resource to support teachers in all learning areas to develop and monitor students’ literacy abilities. The continuum is organised as Levels 1 to 6 that typically, but not exclusively, align with years of schooling to emphasise that the continuum presents a sequence of learning independent of student age:

  • Level 1 — typically by the end of Foundation Year
  • Level 2 — typically by the end of Year 2
  • Level 3 — typically by the end of Year 4
  • Level 4 — typically by the end of Year 6
  • Level 5 — typically by the end of Year 8
  • Level 6 — typically by the end of Year 10.

The organising elements for Literacy are described in the following way:

Diagram with concentric circles. 'Literacy' at the centre. Inner circle: 'Text knowledge, 'Grammar knowledge', 'Word knowledge', Visual knowledge'. Outer circle: 'Comprehending texts', 'Composing texts'

See also ACARA Literacy.

P–10 Literacy Indicators

The QCAA P–10 Literacy Indicators are aligned to the Australian Curriculum (v4.1) and informed by data from Queensland performance on national assessment. The Indicators are organised as Year level descriptions and provide specific detail to support planning for, and monitoring of, children’s literacy knowledge, understanding and skills across the learning areas. For further information, see: P–10 Literacy and Numeracy Indicators.

Table 2: General capabilities that support children to be successful learners are embedded in the English content descriptions where appropriate.

  Definition In English Links
Numeracy

Students become numerate as they develop the knowledge and skills to use mathematics confidently across all learning areas at school and in their lives more broadly. Numeracy involves students in recognising and understanding the role of mathematics in the world and having the dispositions and capacities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.

Students use numeracy skills when interpreting, analysing and creating texts involving quantitative and spatial information such as percentages and statistics, numbers, measurements and directions. When responding to or creating texts that present issues or arguments based on data, students identify, analyse and synthesise numerical information using that understanding to discuss the credibility of sources.

Visual texts may present a range of numeracy demands. Interpreting and creating graphic organisers requires students to examine relationships between various components of a situation and to sort information into categories including characteristics that can be measured or counted. Understanding the mathematical ideas behind visual organisers such as Venn diagrams or flowcharts helps students to use them more effectively.

ACARA Numeracy capability continua

QCAA Numeracy Indicators

ICT capability

Students develop ICT capability as they learn to use ICT effectively and appropriately to access, create and communicate information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school. ICT capability involves students in learning to make the most of the technologies available to them, adapting to new ways of doing things as technologies evolve and limiting the risks to themselves and others in a digital environment.

ICT capability is an important component of the English curriculum. Students use ICT when they interpret and create print, visual and multimodal texts. They use communication technologies when they conduct research online, and collaborate and communicate with others electronically. In particular, they employ ICT to access, analyse, modify and create multimodal texts, including through digital publishing.

As students interpret and create digital texts, they develop their capability in ICT including word processing, navigating and following research trails and selecting and evaluating information found online.

ACARA ICT capability continua

Critical and
creative thinking

Students develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems. Critical and creative thinking are integral to activities that require students to think broadly and deeply using skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas at school and in their lives beyond school.

Critical and creative thinking are essential to developing understanding in English. Students employ critical and creative thinking through discussions, the close analysis of texts and through the creation of their own written, visual and multimodal texts that require logic, imagination and innovation. Students use creative thinking when they imagine possibilities, plan, explore and create ideas and texts.

Through listening to, reading, viewing, creating and presenting texts and interacting with others, students develop their ability to see existing situations in new ways, and explore the creative possibilities of the English language. In discussion students develop critical thinking as they state and justify a point of view and respond to the views of others. Through reading, viewing and listening students critically analyse the opinions, points of view and unstated assumptions embedded in texts.

ACARA Critical and creative thinking capability continua

 

Table 3: General capabilities that develop ways of being, behaving and learning to live with others are embedded in the English content descriptions where appropriate.

  Definition In English Links
Personal and social capability

Students develop personal and social capability as they learn to understand themselves and others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The personal and social capability involves students in a range of practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for and understanding of others, establishing positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams and handling challenging situations constructively.

There are many opportunities for students to develop personal and social capability in English. Language is central to personal and social identity. Using English to develop communication skills and self-expression assists students’ personal and social development as they become effective communicators able to articulate their own opinions and beliefs and to interact and collaborate with others.

The study of English as a system helps students to understand how language functions as a key component of social interactions across all social situations. Through close reading and discussion of texts students experience and evaluate a range of personal and social behaviours and perspectives and develop connections and empathy with characters in different social contexts.

ACARA Personal and social capability continua

Ethical understanding

Students develop the capability to behave ethically as they identify and investigate the nature of ethical concepts, values, character traits and principles, and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgment. Ethical understanding involves students in building a strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviour have on others.

Students develop ethical understanding as they study the issues and dilemmas present in a range of texts and explore how ethical principles affect the behaviour and judgment of characters and those involved in issues and events. Students apply the skills of reasoning, empathy and imagination, consider and make judgments about actions and motives, and speculate on how life experiences affect and influence people’s decision making and whether various positions held are reasonable.

The study of English helps students to understand how language can be used to influence judgments about behaviour, speculate about consequences and influence opinions and that language can carry embedded negative and positive connotations that can be used in ways that help or hurt others.

ACARA Ethical understanding capability continua

Intercultural understanding

Students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.

Students develop intercultural understanding through the study of the English language and the ways it has been influenced by different cultural groups, languages, speakers and writers. In interpreting and analysing authors’ ideas and positions in a range of texts in English and in translation to English, they learn to question stated and unstated cultural beliefs and assumptions, and issues of intercultural meaning.

Students use Intercultural understanding to comprehend and create a range of texts, that present diverse cultural perspectives and to empathise with a variety of people and characters in various cultural settings.

ACARA Intercultural understanding capability continua

2.1.3 Cross-curriculum priorities

The Australian Curriculum gives special attention to three cross-curriculum priorities about which young Australians should learn in all learning areas. The priorities provide contexts for learning. The three priorities are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures, Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia, and Sustainability.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia Sustainability

The English curriculum provides opportunities for strengthening and deepening children’s knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the first peoples of the land and their contributions to Australian society and cultures by including relevant aspects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, literatures and literacies to:

  • enhance understanding of English literacy through knowing there are many languages and dialects spoken in Australia including Aboriginal English and Yumplatok (Torres Strait Islander Creole) and that these languages may have different writing systems and oral traditions
  • develop an awareness and appreciation of, and respect for the literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples including storytelling traditions (oral narrative) as well as contemporary literature
  • develop respectful critical understandings of the social, historical and cultural contexts associated with different uses of language and textual features.

 

The English curriculum enables children to explore and appreciate the diverse range of traditional and contemporary texts from and about the peoples and countries of Asia, including texts written by Australians of Asian heritage. It enables children to understand how Australian culture and the English language have been influenced by the many Asian languages used in Australian homes, classrooms and communities.

In English, children draw on knowledge of the Asia region, including literature, to influence and enhance their own creative pursuits. They develop communication skills that reflect cultural awareness and intercultural understanding.

The English curriculum develops children’s skills to investigate, analyse and communicate ideas and information, and to advocate, generate and evaluate actions. They interrogate a range of texts to shape their decision making and create texts that inform and persuade others. These skills can be demonstrated through developing and sharing knowledge about social, economic and ecological systems and world views that promote social justice and sustainable futures.

For further information and resources to support planning to include the cross-curriculum priority Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures, see: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures resources: English (PDF, 211 kB). For further information and resources to support planning to include the cross-curriculum priority Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, see the Asia Education Foundation website. For further information and resources to support planning to include the cross-curriculum priority Sustainability, see: Cross-curriculum priorities

2.2 Achievement standards

The Australian Curriculum is standards-based.

The Australian Curriculum achievement standards are a mandatory aspect of the Australian Curriculum for schools to implement.

The Australian Curriculum achievement standards are organised as Understanding and Skills and describe a broad sequence of expected learning, across P–10. The achievement standard emphasises the depth of conceptual understanding, the sophistication of skills and the ability to apply essential knowledge children typically demonstrate at the end of each teaching and learning year. The achievement standard should be read in conjunction with the content descriptions.

Figure 3: By the end of Year 2, children are expected to typically know and be able to do the following:

Receptive modes (listening, reading and viewing)

By the end of Year 2, students understand how similar texts share characteristics by identifying text structures and language features used to describe characters, settings and events.

They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high frequency sight words and images that provide additional information. They monitor meaning and self-correct using context, prior knowledge, punctuation, language and phonic knowledge. They identify literal and implied meaning, main ideas and supporting detail. Students make connections between texts by comparing content. They listen for particular purposes. They listen for and manipulate sound combinations and rhythmic sound patterns

Receptive modes relate to understanding and skills in listening, reading and viewing.

Productive modes (speaking/signing, writing and creating)

When discussing their ideas and experiences, students use everyday language features and topic-specific vocabulary. They explain their preferences for aspects of texts using other texts as comparisons. They create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text

Students create texts, drawing on their own experiences, their imagination and information they have learned. They use a variety of strategies to engage in group and class discussions and make presentations. They accurately spell familiar words and attempt to spell less familiar words and use punctuation accurately. They legibly write unjoined upper- and lower-case letters.

Productive modes relate to understanding and skills in speaking/signing, writing and creating.

2.2.1 Year 2 standard elaborations

The Year 2 standard elaborations (Table 4) provides a basis for judging how well children have demonstrated what they know, understand and can do using the Australian Curriculum achievement standard. It is a resource to assist teachers to make consistent and comparable evidence-based judgments. The standard elaborations should be used in conjunction with the Australian Curriculum achievement standard and content descriptions for the relevant year level.

Teachers can use the standard elaborations to:

  • match the evidence of learning in a folio or collection of children's work gathered over the reporting period to determine how well a child has achieved against the achievement standard on a five-point scale (see section 4)
  • inform the development of an assessment program and individual assessments (see section 3.3)
  • inform the development of task-specific standards (see section 3.4 and section 3.5)

The structure of the English standard elaborations

Thumbnail of content detailed in following table

 

The following table provides the standard elaborations for Year 2 English. For a Word version of the standard elaborations, see the resources section.

Refer to the Glossaries for descriptions of terms used in the standard elaborations.

Table 4: The Year 2 English standard elaborations

Understanding and skills dimensions

Applying (AP)

Making connections (MC)

Working with (WW)

Exploring (EX)

Becoming aware (BA)

Receptive modes – Evidence of listening, reading and viewing

The folio of a child’s work has the following characteristics:

Ideas and information in texts

Clear knowledge of:

  • context
  • prior experience
  • punctuation
  • language
  • phonics

to monitor meaning and self-correct

 

Effective knowledge of:

  • context
  • prior experience
  • punctuation
  • language
  • phonics

to monitor meaning and self-correct

 

Workable knowledge of:

  • context
  • prior experience
  • punctuation
  • language
  • phonics

to monitor meaning and self-correct

 

Guided knowledge of:

  • context
  • prior experience
  • punctuation
  • language
  • phonics

to monitor meaning and self-correct

 

Directed use of support resources to monitor meaning and self-correct

 

Explanation of the main ideas and supporting detail to show understanding of literal and implied meaning in texts Description of the main ideas and supporting detail to show understanding of literal and implied meaning in texts Identification of the main ideas and supporting detail to show understanding of literal and implied meaning in texts Guided identification of key ideas and supporting detail, and identification of literal and implied meaning in familiar texts Directed identification of aspects of key ideas and supporting detail, and recognition of literal meaning in familiar texts

Types of texts

Clear explanation of text structures to show understanding of the purposes shared by similar texts

Explanation of text structures to show understanding of the purposes shared by similar texts

Statements that show understanding of text structures and the purposes shared by similar texts

Description of common characteristics shared by similar texts

Identification of common characteristics shared by similar texts

Language and textual features, including oral language, and listening

Clear explanation of language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events

Explanation of language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events

Identification of language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events

Guided identification of aspects of language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events

Directed identification of language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events

Clear and effective use of fluency and phrasing, sound patterns, and written language features to read aloud short texts with:

  • some unfamiliar vocabulary
  • varied sentence structures
  • images that provide information

Effective use of fluency and phrasing, sound patterns, and written language features to read aloud short texts with:

  • some unfamiliar vocabulary
  • varied sentence structures
  • images that provide information

Use of fluency and phrasing, sound patterns, and written language features to read aloud short texts with:

  • some unfamiliar vocabulary
  • varied sentence structures
  • images that provide information

Demonstration of growing fluency and phrasing by using sound patterns, and written language features to read aloud short texts with:

  • familiar vocabulary
  • varied sentence structures
  • images that provide information

Directed use of fluency and phrasing, sound patterns, and written language features to read aloud short texts with:

  • familiar vocabulary
  • simple and compound sentences
  • supportive images
Clear and effective use of interaction skills to listen and respond to others in conversations and discussions Effective use of interaction skills to listen and respond to others in conversations and discussions Use of interaction skills to listen and respond to others in conversations and discussions Guided use of interaction skills to listen and respond to others in conversations and discussions Directed use of interaction skills to listen and respond to others in conversations and discussions

Productive modes – Evidence of speaking, writing and creating

The folio of a child’s work has the following characteristics:

Ideas and information in texts

Clear and effective selection and organisation of relevant ideas, information and images to support meaning in own texts

Effective selection and organisation of relevant ideas, information and images to support meaning in own texts

Workable selection and organisation of relevant ideas, information and images to support meaning in own texts

Guided selection and organisation of ideas, information and images to support meaning in own texts

Directed selection and organisation of ideas, information and images to support meaning in own texts

Clear comparison of characters, events and settings in and between texts to explain a personal preference or opinion Comparison of characters, events and settings in and between texts to explain a personal preference Description of characters, events and settings in and between texts to explain a personal preference Guided description of characters, events and settings in texts to explain a personal preference Directed description of characters, events and settings in familiar texts to explain a personal preference

Language and textual features

Clear and effective use of:

  • topic-specific vocabulary
  • spoken language features

in discussions and short presentations on familiar topics to suit audience and purpose

 

Effective use of:

  • topic-specific vocabulary
  • spoken language features

in discussions and short presentations on familiar topics to suit audience and purpose

 

Workable use of:

  • topic-specific vocabulary
  • spoken language features

in discussions and short presentations on learned and some familiar topics

 

Guided use of:

  • topic-specific vocabulary
  • spoken language features

in discussions and short presentations on learned topics

 

Directed use of:

  • topic-related vocabulary
  • spoken language features

in discussions and short presentations on learned topics

 

Clear and effective use of:

  • vocabulary
  • spelling patterns
  • punctuation
  • grammar
  • handwriting with legible, unjoined upper- and lower-case letters

in their own texts

Effective use of:

  • vocabulary
  • spelling patterns
  • punctuation
  • grammar
  • handwriting with legible, unjoined upper- and lower-case letters

in their own texts

Workable use of:

  • vocabulary
  • spelling patterns
  • punctuation
  • grammar
  • handwriting with legible, unjoined upper- and lower-case letters

in their own texts

Demonstration of growing fluency and use of:

  • vocabulary
  • spelling patterns
  • punctuation
  • grammar
  • handwriting with legible, unjoined upper- and lower-case letters

in their own texts

Directed use of:

  • vocabulary
  • spelling patterns
  • punctuation
  • grammar
  • handwriting with legible, unjoined upper- and lower-case letters

in their own texts

Key

AP The child applies the curriculum content and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the required knowledge. The child demonstrates a high level of skill that can be transferred to new situations.

MC The child makes connections using the curriculum content and demonstrates a clear understanding of the required knowledge. The child applies a high level of skill in situations familiar to them, and is beginning to transfer skills to new situations.

WW The child can work with the curriculum content and demonstrates understanding of the required knowledge. The child applies skills in situations familiar to them.

EX The child is exploring the curriculum content and demonstrates understanding of aspects of the required knowledge. The child uses a varying level of skills in situations familiar to them.

BA The child is becoming aware of the curriculum content and demonstrates a basic understanding of aspects of required knowledge. The child is beginning to use skills in situations familiar to them.

2.3 Planning in the English learning area

Schools plan their curriculum and assessment using the Australian Curriculum content descriptions and achievement standards.

Curriculum and assessment planning within schools occurs at three levels:

Whole school plan

Year level plan / Multiple year level plan

Unit overview / Unit overview planning for multiple year levels

For planning templates and English exemplar year and unit plans, see the resources section.

2.3.1 Time allocation

Indicative time allocations support schools in planning teaching and learning experiences using the Australian Curriculum: English. Schools may decide to timetable more hours for a learning area.

The indicative time allocations are presented as two sets of minimum hours per year that provide reasonable flexibility. In Year 2, the minimum number of hours for teaching, learning and assessment per year for the Australian Curriculum: English is:

  • at least 250 hours per year where there are 37 teaching weeks available in the year
  • at least 270 hours per year where there are 40 teaching weeks available in the year.

2.3.2 Principles for effective planning

The principles that underpin effective curriculum and assessment planning include:

  • High expectations for all children — High student expectations are built on differentiation of teaching and learning for all children in single and multiple year-level contexts.

  • Alignment of teaching and learning, and assessment and reporting — Curriculum and assessment planning is thoughtful and ensures that all parts are connected. Plans are reviewed regularly to inform future planning, teaching, learning and assessment.

  • Standards- and school-based assessment for learning — Teachers use standards to build a shared understanding of the qualities found in children's work, and to communicate student achievement to children, parents/carers and the system.

  • Balance of informed prescription and teacher professional judgment — Teachers exercise their professional judgment and make decisions about teaching and learning in their school within the context of the Australian Curriculum and system and sector priorities.

2.3.3 Elements of effective planning for alignment

Curriculum and assessment planning is guided by five interdependent elements of professional practice. These five elements can be used in any sequence but all should be considered:

  • Identify curriculum
  • Develop assessment
  • Sequence teaching and learning
  • Make judgments
  • Use feedback

Figure 4: The five elements for effective curriculum and assessment planning

Identify curriculum (section 2.3.4)

The Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards are the basis for planning teaching, learning and assessment.

Develop assessment (section 3)

Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning. The assessment provides the evidence of children's learning on which judgments can be made against the achievement standard.

Sequence teaching and learning (section 2.3.6)

The selection and sequence of learning experiences and teaching strategies support children's learning of the curriculum content and work towards providing evidence of achievement through assessment.

Make judgments (section 2.2, section 3.5 and section 4.2)

Judgment about evidence of learning is made against the Australian Curriculum achievement standard. The standard elaborations assist teachers in making judgments on a five-point scale and in identifying the task-specific standards.

Use feedback (section 3.6 and section 4)

Children receive regular feedback through monitoring, which provides ongoing feedback as part of the teaching and learning process. Formal feedback is provided to children and their parents/carers at the time of reporting. Teachers use feedback to inform their planning for teaching and learning.

Planning that considers these five elements strengthens alignment and ensures that:

  • what is taught informs how it is taught, how children are assessed and how the learning is reported
  • what is assessed relates directly to what children have had an opportunity to learn
  • specific feedback, based on what has been learnt and assessed, provides a basis for decisions about continuous improvement in teaching and learning
  • what is reported to children, parents/carers and other teachers aligns with what has been learnt.

2.3.4 Identifying curriculum

Year 2 English teaching and learning programs are developed from the:

  • Year 2 Australian Curriculum: English content descriptions to:
    • determine the scope of learning and ensure all required learning is included
    • identify relevant general capabilities
    • determine appropriate contexts for teaching and learning, including the cross-curriculum priorities
  • Year 2 Australian Curriculum: English achievement standard to identify the expected and valued qualities of children’s work.

When planning a teaching and learning program, consider:

  • What am I required to teach?
  • What should children have the opportunity to learn?
  • What are the expected and valued qualities of children’s work?

See the English scope and sequence (ACARA PDF) developed by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.

2.3.5 Developing assessment

Assessment provides the evidence of learning. An assessment program is planned at the same time as the teaching and learning program and is developed using the content descriptions and achievement standard.

When developing assessment, consider:

  • What evidence of learning do I need to collect?
  • How and when will I collect the evidence of learning?

See section 3 for advice about developing an assessment program.

2.3.6 Sequencing teaching and learning

Learning experiences and teaching strategies are selected and sequenced to support active engagement in learning and to provide opportunities for children to engage with all aspects of the curriculum content to develop their understanding and skills.

When sequencing teaching and learning, consider:

  • How will I sequence teaching strategies and learning experiences to cover the curriculum content, ensure depth of learning and support children’s success in the assessment?
  • How do I include opportunities for all children to learn?

Figure 5: Learning experiences in English

Diagram showing relationship between learning experiences. These are explored in detail in the following text

Build on concepts, skills and processes developed in earlier years

The P–10 English curriculum builds children’s knowledge and understanding about language, literacy and literature. English teaching and learning programs are recursive and cumulative allowing children to practise, consolidate and extend what they have learned from previous years. A concept or skill introduced at one year level may be revisited, strengthened and extended at later year levels as needed.

See the English scope and sequence (ACARA PDF) developed by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.

Integrate Language, Literature and Literacy

English teaching and learning programs balance and integrate the three strands: Language, Literature and Literacy. Together the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in the language modes: listening, reading, viewing, speaking/signing, writing and creating.

The language modes are incorporated in the content descriptions in each strand in an integrated and interdependent way. Classroom contexts that address particular content descriptions will draw from more than one of the language modes to support students’ effective learning. For example, students will learn new vocabulary through listening and reading and apply their knowledge and understanding in their speaking/signing and writing as well as in their comprehension of both spoken and written texts.

The relationships across the sub-strands support an integrated approach.

Table 5: English strands and sub-strands

Language
Knowing about the English language

Literature
Understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literature

Literacy
Expanding the repertoire of English usage

Language variation and change

Focus:

  • Languages and dialects are constantly evolving due to historical, social and cultural changes, demographic movements and technological innovations.
  • These factors, and new virtual communities and environments, continue to affect the nature and spread of English.

Literature and context

Focus:

  • Ideas and viewpoints about events, issues and characters that are expressed by authors in texts are drawn from and shaped by different historical, social and cultural contexts.

Texts in context

Focus:

  • Texts from different cultures or historical periods may reveal different patterns in how they narrate, inform and persuade.

 

These sub-strands are concerned with historical, social and cultural contexts and change.

Language for interaction

Focus:

  • Language used by individuals varies according to their social setting and the relationships between the participants.
  • Accents and styles of speech and idiom are part of the creation and expression of personal and social identities.

Responding to literature

Focus:

  • Identify personal ideas, experiences and opinions about literary texts and discuss them with others.
  • Recognise areas of agreement and difference, and how to develop and refine interpretations through discussion and argument.

Interacting with others

Focus:

  • Use language patterns to express ideas and key concepts to develop and defend arguments, individually and in groups.
  • Promote a point of view by designing, rehearsing and delivering spoken and written presentations and appropriately selecting and sequencing linguistic and multimodal elements.

These sub-strands are concerned with:

  • listening and speaking/ signing
  • interaction with others
  • developing and presenting discussions and arguments.

Text structure and organisation

Focus:

  • Texts are structured to achieve particular purposes.
  • Language is used to create texts that are cohesive and coherent.
  • Texts about specialised topics contain more complex language patterns and features.
  • Authors guide the readers/viewers through the text through effective use of resources at the level of the whole text, the paragraph and the sentence.

Examining literature

Focus:

  • Explain and analyse the ways in which stories, characters, settings and experiences are reflected in particular literary genres and discuss the appeal of these genres.
  • Compare and appraise the ways authors use language and literary techniques and devices to influence readers.
  • Understand, interpret, discuss and evaluate how certain stylistic choices can create multiple layers of interpretation and effect.

Interpreting, analysing and evaluating

Focus:

  • Comprehend what is read and viewed by applying growing contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge.
  • Develop more sophisticated processes for interpreting, analysing, evaluating and critiquing ideas, information and issues from a variety of sources.
  • Explore the ways conventions and structures are used in written, digital, multimedia and cinematic texts to entertain, inform and persuade audiences.
  • Use knowledge of textual features to explain how texts make an impact on different audiences.

These sub-strands are concerned with interpreting, analysing and evaluating texts.

Expressing and developing ideas

Focus:

  • Effective authors control and use an increasingly differentiated range of clause structures, words and word groups, as well as combinations of sound, image, movement, verbal elements and layout.
  • The conventions, patterns and generalisations that relate to English spelling involve the origins of words, word endings, Greek and Latin roots, base words and affixes.

Creating literature

Focus:

  • Use personal knowledge and literary texts as starting points to create imaginative writing in different forms and genres and for particular audiences.
  • Use print, digital and online media to develop skills that convey meaning, address significant issues and heighten engagement and impact.

Creating texts

Focus:

  • Apply knowledge developed in other strands and sub-strands to create — with clarity, authority and novelty — a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts that entertain, inform and persuade audiences.
  • Strategically select key aspects of a topic as well as language, visual and audio features.
  • Edit for enhanced meaning and effect by refining ideas, reordering sentences, adding or substituting words for clarity, and removing repetition.
  • Develop and consolidate a handwriting style that is legible, fluent and automatic, and that supports sustained writing.
  • Use a range of software programs, including word processing software, and purposefully select from a range of functions to communicate and create clear, effective, informative and innovative texts.

These sub-strands are about the productive mode and how to use language to create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts.

Include close study of texts

Close study involves engaging deeply with fewer texts and focusing on specific details in the text that generate meaning, e.g. looking at the effects of such elements of meaning as word choice, imagery, rhetorical devices, tone or atmosphere, point of view, sound effects, allusions to other literary works, structure and so on. It includes consideration of structures, layouts and graphics in order to fully understand and appreciate the issues and ideas in texts. Examples of strategies for “close study” are found in the content description elaborations. (See section 2.1.1. Click on the links to access content description elaborations.)

Include a range and balance of texts

English teaching and learning programs focus on the study of texts.

Texts provide the means for communication. They can be written, spoken or multimodal, and in print or digital/online forms. Multimodal texts combine language with other means of communication such as visual images, soundtrack or spoken word, as in film or computer presentation media.

English programs include opportunities for children to read, listen to and view a range and balance of literary and non-literary texts that encourage their development as language learners and users.

Children engage with the cross-curriculum priorities through the inclusion of the study of texts from different times, places and cultures. Programs should include:

  • Australian literature
  • oral narrative traditions and contemporary literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
  • classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia.

Table 6: Literary texts

Literary texts include contemporary and traditional texts that are seen as having personal, social, cultural and aesthetic value and potential for enriching students' scope of experience.

Literary texts use language in aesthetic, imaginative and engaging ways to entertain, to move, to reflect and to express, create, explore and challenge identity. These texts include narrative and non-narrative forms.

The term 'literature' refers to texts that are valued for their form and style and are recognised as having enduring or artistic value.

The literature strand is aimed at encouraging teachers to use literary texts for close study or comparative purposes to engage students in discussing, examining, interpreting and evaluating texts whose primary purpose is aesthetic in increasingly sophisticated and informed 'literary' ways.

 

 

Year 2 literary texts

In Year 2, literary texts that support and extend students as independent readers involve sequences of events that span several pages and present unusual happenings within a framework of familiar experiences.

Some examples of literary texts include:

  • traditional oral texts including Aboriginal stories
  • picture books
  • various types of stories
  • rhyming verse
  • poetry
  • non-fiction
  • film
  • dramatic performances
  • texts used by students as models for constructing their own texts.

Included a range of literary texts across a Years P–2 program.

 

Table 7: Non-literary texts

Non-literary texts are contemporary, traditional and everyday texts that use language (spoken/signed and written) -

  • to inform, explain, analyse, argue, persuade and give opinions;

  • to remember, recall and report on things, events and issues;

  • to transact and negotiate relationships, goods and services.

 

 

 

 

Year 2 non-literary texts

In Year 2, non-literary informative texts present new content about topics of interest and topics being studied in other areas of the curriculum. These texts include language features such as varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high-frequency sight words and words that need to be decoded phonically, and a range of punctuation conventions, as well as illustrations and diagrams that both support and extend the printed text.

Some examples of non-literary texts include:

  • informative texts including online texts
  • everyday texts of work, family and community life such as signs and newspaper advertisements
  • reflective texts such as diaries and personal letters
  • documentary films/clips.

Include a range of non-literary texts across a Years P–2 program.

 


For further information, including reading lists, see: Australian Curriculum: Advice on selection of literary texts

Include the general capabilities

The general capabilities are relevant to teaching and learning in English, and explicit teaching of the capabilities should be incorporated in teaching and learning activities where appropriate. Section 2.1.2 outlines how the general capabilities are an integral part of an English program.

Embed meaningful contexts

Schools develop learning contexts to suit the content to be taught and the children’s interests and learning needs. It is important to actively engage children in learning that is relevant and of interest to them. The focus or context for learning should connect with issues of personal or social relevance to children. The cross-curriculum priorities provide rich and engaging contexts for developing children’s abilities in listening, speaking/signing, reading, viewing, writing and creating. (See section 2.1.3 for information about the priorities).

Year 2 should include opportunities to communicate with peers, teachers, students from other classes, and community members.

2.3.7 Educational equity

Equity means fair treatment of all. In developing teaching, learning and assessment programs, teachers provide opportunities for all children to demonstrate what they know and what they can do.

See the QCAA Equity statement:

Catering for diversity

Schools and school sectors determine which children require special provisions, applying principles of participation and equity. Consideration should be given to:

  • adjustments and supports for children who have been identified as having specific educational requirements to make participation possible in all or part of the teaching and learning experiences and assessments
  • interpreter or educational devices (e.g. pictures, electronic whiteboards, interactive devices) to assist children for whom English is not their first language and who are assessed as not achieving a reading level appropriate to complete the assessment.

In exceptional circumstances, the school, in consultation with staff and parents/carers, may make decisions about the level of engagement with a particular assessment, according to school sector policy.

Inclusive strategies

Adjustments to teaching, learning and assessment can be grouped into five broad areas: timing, scheduling, setting, presentation and response.

Teachers consider the inclusive strategies to make adjustments to teaching and learning experiences and assessments to enable all children to demonstrate their knowledge, skills or competencies.

The inclusive strategies should be considered in combination when planning, developing and documenting the adjustment of learning experiences and assessment. For example, when planning an assessment, the teacher may need to consider adjusting the timing, setting, presentation and response to ensure the child is given the opportunities to demonstrate their learning.

Evaluating the use and effectiveness of any adjustment is necessary to ensure meaningful participation and achievement.

For further information and resources about inclusive strategies, see Catering for diversity.

English as an Additional Language or Dialect

For further information and resources about English as an Additional Language or Dialect, see:

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Last reviewed: 1 July 2014

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